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Is Kazakhstan assisting Russia’s nuclear-weapons programme?

Russian media have reported that on 11 April 2023 its forces launched an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) from Russian territory (Astrakhan) with a training warhead that hit a mock target at the Sary-Shagan test site in Kazakhstan. This raises questions regarding Kazakhstan’s compliance with the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.

Screen grab from TASS website 12 April 2023