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Opposed

China

Nuclear-armed state (320 nuclear warheads)

China boycotted the TPNW negotiations in 2017 and has not adhered to the Treaty. It is a nuclear-armed state and not in compliance with all of the prohibitions in Article 1. China may sign and ratify the TPNW, but will have to make changes to its policies and practices to become compliant.

TPNW status
Not signed, not ratified, not acceded
Compatibility with prohibitions in TPNW Article 1(1)
Art 1(1)(a) Develop, produce, manufacture, acquire Not compatible
Test Compatible
Possess or stockpile Not compatible
Art 1(1)(b) Transfer Compatible
Art 1(1)(c) Receive transfer or control Compatible
Art 1(1)(d) Use Compatible
Threaten to use Compatible
Art 1(1)(e) Assist, encourage or induce Compatible
Art 1(1)(f) Seek or receive assistance Compatible
Art 1(1)(g) Allow stationing, installation, deployment Compatible
TPNW voting and participation
Vote on negotiation mandate (A/RES/71/258) Abstained
Participated in treaty negotiations (% women) No (N/A)
Vote on adoption of treaty text N/A
Last vote on UNGA resolution Voted no
Fissile material
Fissile material production facilities Yes
Highly enriched uranium stocks 14,300 kg
Plutonium stocks (military/civilian) 2,900 kg/40 kg
Related treaties and regimes
Party to the NPT Yes
Party to a NWFZ No (4 of 5 NSA protocols)
Ratified the CTBT No (Signed, Annex 2 state)
Party to the PTBT No
Member of the CD Yes
IAEA CSA in force Voluntary offer agreement
IAEA AP in force Partial
Party to the CWC Yes
Party to the BWC Yes

Latest developments

China voted against the UN General Assembly resolutions on the TPNW in 2018, 2019, and 2020. In First Committee of the 2020 UN General Assembly, China said it objected to all references to the TPNW in various resolutions, and that nuclear disarmament cannot be divorced from the security environment. See: bit.ly/2HjZ21c.

Recommendations

  • China should acknowledge that nuclear deterrence is not a sustainable solution for its own or international security, and that any perceived benefits are far outweighed by the risk of nuclear accidents or war. It should move rapidly to verifiably reduce and eliminate its nuclear arsenal.
  • China should urgently sign and ratify the TPNW, and encourage other states to adhere to the Treaty. Until it is in a position to do so, it should welcome the TPNW as a valuable contribution to the global disarmament and non-proliferation architecture, attend its meetings of states parties as an observer, and work with its states parties on practical steps towards disarmament.
  • China should implement in good faith its obligations under Article VI of the NPT. China should conclude and bring into force a full Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (CSA) and Additional Protocol (AP) with the IAEA. China should also ratify the CTBT.
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