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Nuclear-armed state

China boycotted the TPNW negotiations in 2017 and remains unwilling to adhere to or engage constructively with the Treaty.

TPNW Article 1(1) prohibitions: Compatibility in 2021
(a) Develop, produce, manufacture, acquire Not compatible
Test Compatible
Possess or stockpile Not compatible
(b) Transfer Compatible
(c) Receive transfer or control Compatible
(d) Use Compatible
Threaten to use Compatible
(e) Assist, encourage or induce Compatible
(f) Seek or receive assistance Compatible
(g) Allow stationing, installation, deployment Compatible
TPNW voting and participation
2021 UNGA resolution on TPNW
2020 UNGA resolution on TPNW
2019 UNGA resolution on TPNW Voted no
2018 UNGA resolution on TPNW Voted no
Participated in TPNW negotiations No
Share of women in TPNW negotiations N/A
Vote on adoption of treaty text N/A
Adoption of TPNW (7 July 2017) N/A
IAEA safeguards and fissile material
Safeguards Agreement Voluntary offer agreement
TPNW Art 3(2) deadline N/A
Small Quantities Protocol No
Additional Protocol Partial
Fissile material production facilities Yes (Civilian, dual-use)
Highly enriched uranium stocks 14 tons (m)
Plutonium stocks (mil/civ) 2.9 tons/No
Related treaties and regimes
Party to the BWC Yes
Party to the CWC Yes
Party to the PTBT No
Ratified the CTBT No (Signed, Annex 2 state)
Party to the NPT Yes
Party to a NWFZ No (4 of 5 NSA protocols)
Member of the CD Yes

Latest developments

In a joint statement in the First Committee of the 2021 UN General Assembly, China, together with France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, reiterated its opposition to the TPNW.1


  • China should acknowledge that nuclear deterrence is not a sustainable solution for its own or international security, and that any perceived benefits are far outweighed by the risk of nuclear accidents or war. It should move rapidly to verifiably reduce and eliminate its nuclear arsenal.
  • China should urgently adhere to the TPNW. Until it is in a position to do so, it should welcome the TPNW as a valuable component in the global disarmament and non-proliferation architecture, work with the Treaty's states parties on practical steps towards disarmament, and attend the meetings of states parties as an observer.
  • China should implement in good faith its obligations under Article VI of the NPT. China should upgrade to a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and requisite Additional Protocol with the IAEA. China should also ratify the CTBT.

China's inventory of nuclear warheads at the beginning of 2022

Total inventory of warheads
Retired warheads
Usable stockpile of warheads
Total yield of usable stockpile
Hiroshima-bomb equivalents
China silos

Approximately 60 warheads are assigned to China’s 20 siloed intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), including the DF-5A and DF-5B. The former is capable of carrying a single warhead to a range of up to 12,000 km, while the latter can carry up to five multiple independently-targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs) to a range of up to 13,000 km.

China mobile

Approximately 138 warheads are assigned to China’s mobile ICBMs, including the DF-4, DF-31/A/AG, and DF-41. These ICBMs can deliver warheads to distances between 5,500 km and 12,000 km.

Approximately 60 warheads are assigned to China’s sizable arsenal of dual-capable mobile medium- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles, including the DF-21A/E and DF-26. These missiles can deliver warheads to ranges in excess of 2,100 kilometres and 4,000 kilometres, respectively.

China submarines

Approximately 72 warheads are assigned to China’s six operational Jin-class Type 094/A ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs), each of which are capable of launching up to 12 JL-2 submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). Each missile can carry one warhead.

China aircraft

Approximately 20 gravity bombs and/or air-launched ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads may be assigned to the People’s Liberation Army Air Force for delivery by China’s H-6 heavy bombers.

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