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Umbrella state hosting nuclear weapons (NATO)

The Netherlands was the only umbrella state to participate in the negotiation of the TPNW in 2017 and the only state that voted against the adoption of the Treaty. It has consistently voted against the annual UN General Assembly resolutions on the TPNW, including in 2021.

TPNW Article 1(1) prohibitions: Compatibility in 2021
(a) Develop, produce, manufacture, acquire Compatible
Test Compatible
Possess or stockpile Compatible
(b) Transfer Compatible
(c) Receive transfer or control Compatible
(d) Use Compatible
Threaten to use Compatible
(e) Assist, encourage or induce Not compatible
(f) Seek or receive assistance Compatible
(g) Allow stationing, installation, deployment Not compatible
TPNW voting and participation
2021 UNGA resolution on TPNW
2020 UNGA resolution on TPNW
2019 UNGA resolution on TPNW Voted no
2018 UNGA resolution on TPNW Voted no
Participated in TPNW negotiations Yes
Share of women in TPNW negotiations 30%
Vote on adoption of treaty text Voted no
Adoption of TPNW (7 July 2017) Voted no
IAEA safeguards and fissile material
Safeguards Agreement Yes
TPNW Art 3(2) deadline N/A
Small Quantities Protocol Yes (Original)
Additional Protocol Yes
Fissile material production facilities Yes (Civilian)
Highly enriched uranium stocks 100–1000 kg
Plutonium stocks (mil/civ) No/Stored abroad
Related treaties and regimes
Party to the BWC Yes
Party to the CWC Yes
Party to the PTBT Yes
Ratified the CTBT Yes (Annex 2 state)
Party to the NPT Yes
Party to a NWFZ No
Member of the CD Yes

Latest developments

The Dutch government coalition agreement states that 'While respecting our obligations to our allies, we will contribute to a world free of nuclear weapons'.1 The Dutch parliament has been very vocal in its support to remove the nuclear weapons on its territory, and has adopted several motions explicitly calling on the government to do so.2

In 2021, a motion calling on the Netherlands to join the First Meeting of States Parties to the TPNW as an observer was defeated in parliament despite support from a majority of political parties.3

In November 2018, the Dutch House of Representatives adopted a series of motions calling on the government to intensify its advocacy for nuclear disarmament, including to champion the TPNW within NATO and investigate the compatibility of the TPNW with existing Dutch legislation.4 In January 2019, the Dutch foreign and defence ministers informed the Dutch House of Representatives that there are no legal obstacles under Dutch law preventing the Netherlands from joining the TPNW.5

The Netherlands may sign and ratify or accede to the TPNW, but will have to make changes to its policies and practices to become compliant.


  • The Netherlands should ensure that nuclear weapons do not have a role in its national defence plans and security policies. It should ensure the removal of the foreign nuclear weapons on its territory, renounce the possession and potential use of nuclear weapons on its behalf, for instance through a declaratory statement, and refrain from endorsing future alliance statements in support of nuclear weapons.
  • The Netherlands should urgently adhere to the TPNW. Until it is in a position to do so, it should welcome the TPNW as a valuable component in the global disarmament and non-proliferation architecture, work with the Treaty's states parties on practical steps towards disarmament, and attend the meetings of states parties as an observer.
  • The Netherlands should upgrade to a Modified Small Quantities Protocol with the IAEA.
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