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Umbrella state (NATO)

The Netherlands was the only umbrella state to participate in the negotiations of the TPNW in 2017 and the only state that voted against the adoption of the Treaty on 7 July 2017. As an umbrella state and host of foreign nuclear weapons, it is not in compliance with all of the prohibitions in Article 1. The Netherlands may sign and ratify the TPNW, but will have to make changes to its policies and practices to become compliant.

TPNW status
Not signed, not ratified, not acceded
Compatibility with prohibitions in TPNW Article 1(1)
Art 1(1)(a) Develop, produce, manufacture, acquire Compatible
Test Compatible
Possess or stockpile Compatible
Art 1(1)(b) Transfer Compatible
Art 1(1)(c) Receive transfer or control Compatible
Art 1(1)(d) Use Compatible
Threaten to use Compatible
Art 1(1)(e) Assist, encourage or induce Not compatible
Art 1(1)(f) Seek or receive assistance Compatible
Art 1(1)(g) Allow stationing, installation, deployment Not compatible
TPNW voting and participation
Vote on negotiation mandate (A/RES/71/258) Abstained
Participated in treaty negotiations (% women) Yes (30%)
Vote on adoption of treaty text Voted no
Last vote on UNGA resolution Voted no
Fissile material
Fissile material production facilities Yes
Highly enriched uranium stocks 100–1,000 kg
Plutonium stocks (military/civilian) No/Stored abroad
Related treaties and regimes
Party to the NPT Yes
Party to a NWFZ No
Ratified the CTBT Yes (Annex 2 state)
Party to the PTBT Yes
Member of the CD Yes
IAEA CSA in force Yes
IAEA AP in force Yes
Party to the CWC Yes
Party to the BWC Yes

Latest developments

The Netherlands voted against the UN General Assembly resolutions on the TPNW in 2018, 2019, and 2020. In November 2018, the Dutch House of Representatives adopted a series of motions calling on the government to intensify its advocacy for nuclear disarmament, including to champion the TPNW within NATO and investigate the compatibility of the TPNW with existing Dutch legislation. In January 2019, the Dutch foreign and defence ministers informed the Dutch House of Representatives that there are no legal obstacles within Dutch law preventing the Netherlands from joining the TPNW. An opinion poll conducted in April 2019 shows that a large majority of Dutch citizens want the Netherlands to sign the TPNW. In January 2020, the Dutch minister of foreign affairs repeated that the government does not support the TPNW. See:,,


  • The Netherlands should ensure that nuclear weapons do not have a role in its national defence plans and security policies. It should ensure the removal of the foreign nuclear weapons on its territory, renounce the retention and potential use of nuclear weapons on its behalf, for instance through a declaratory statement, and refrain from endorsing future alliance statements in support of nuclear weapons.
  • The Netherlands should urgently sign and ratify the TPNW, and encourage other states to adhere to the Treaty. Until it is in a position to do so, it should welcome the TPNW as a valuable contribution to the global disarmament and non-proliferation architecture, attend its meetings of states parties as an observer, and work with its states parties on practical steps towards disarmament.
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