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Belarus

Umbrella state (bilateral with Russia)

Belarus did not participate in the TPNW negotiations in 2017 and has not yet adhered to the Treaty. It has consistently abstained on the UN General Assembly resolutions on the TPNW in 2018, 2019, and 2020. As an umbrella state, Belarus is not in compliance with all of the prohibitions in Article 1. It may sign and ratify the TPNW, but will have to make changes to its policies and practices to become compliant.

TPNW status
Not signed, not ratified, not acceded
Compatibility with prohibitions in TPNW Article 1(1)
Art 1(1)(a) Develop, produce, manufacture, acquire Compatible
Test Compatible
Possess or stockpile Compatible
Art 1(1)(b) Transfer Compatible
Art 1(1)(c) Receive transfer or control Compatible
Art 1(1)(d) Use Compatible
Threaten to use Compatible
Art 1(1)(e) Assist, encourage or induce Not compatible
Art 1(1)(f) Seek or receive assistance Compatible
Art 1(1)(g) Allow stationing, installation, deployment Compatible
TPNW voting and participation
Vote on negotiation mandate (A/RES/71/258) Abstained
Participated in treaty negotiations (% women) No (N/A)
Vote on adoption of treaty text N/A
Last vote on UNGA resolution Abstained
Fissile material
Fissile material production facilities No
Highly enriched uranium stocks 100–1,000 kg
Plutonium stocks (military/civilian) No/No
Related treaties and regimes
Party to the NPT Yes
Party to a NWFZ No
Ratified the CTBT Yes
Party to the PTBT Yes
Member of the CD Yes
IAEA CSA in force Yes
IAEA AP in force No (Signed 2005)
Party to the CWC Yes
Party to the BWC Yes

Latest developments

Speaking in First Committee at the 2020 UN General Assembly, Belarus argued that problems related to nuclear weapons and failure to implement the NPT are becoming more acute. It also regretted that there are no NWFZs in Europe. See: bit.ly/3fkgEqc.

Recommendations

  • Belarus should ensure that nuclear weapons do not have a role in its national defence plans and security policies. It should renounce the retention and potential use of nuclear weapons on its behalf, for instance through a declaratory statement, and refrain from endorsing future alliance statements in support of weapons of mass destruction.
  • Belarus should urgently sign and ratify the TPNW, and encourage other states to adhere to the Treaty. Until it is in a position to do so, it should welcome the TPNW as a valuable contribution to the global disarmament and non-proliferation architecture, attend its meetings of states parties as an observer, and work with its states parties on practical steps towards disarmament.
  • Belarus should bring into force its Additional Protocol (AP) with the IAEA.
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