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Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands attended as an observer both the First and Second Meetings of States Parties to the TPNW (1MSP and 2MSP).

TPNW Status

TPNW Article 1(1) prohibitions: Compatibility in 2023
(a) Develop, produce, manufacture, acquire Compatible
Test Compatible
Possess or stockpile Compatible
(b) Transfer Compatible
(c) Receive transfer or control Compatible
(d) Use Compatible
Threaten to use Compatible
(e) Assist, encourage or induce Non-compatible
(f) Seek or receive assistance Compatible
(g) Allow stationing, installation, deployment Compatible
TPNW voting and participation
UNGA resolution on TPNW (latest vote) Abstained (2023)
Participated in 2MSP (2023) Yes
1MSP delegation size (% women) 3 (33%)
Adoption of TPNW (7 July 2017) Voted yes
Participated in TPNW negotiations (2017) Yes
Negotiation mandate (A/RES/71/258) Voted yes
Other weapons of mass destruction (WMD) treaties
Party to an NWFZ No
Party to the NPT Yes (Acceded 1995)
Ratified the CTBT Yes (Ratified 2009)
Party to the BWC Yes (Acceded 2012)
Party to the CWC Yes (Ratified 2004)
IAEA safeguards and fissile material
Safeguards agreement Yes (3 May 2005)
TPNW Art 3(2) deadline N/A
Small Quantities Protocol No
Additional Protocol Yes
Enrichment facilities/reprocessing plants No
HEU stocks No
Plutonium stocks No

Latest developments

During the high-level segment of the UN General Assembly in September 2023, the President of the Marshall Islands, David Kabua, said that his country ‘desires to continue its free association with the United States, but the United States must realise that the Marshallese people require that the nuclear issues be addressed’. He noted that the US ‘has not fulfilled its obligations’ to the Marshallese people resulting from its nuclear test programme.1 In October 2023, the US and the Marshall Islands signed a renewed 20-year ‘compact of free association’, under which the US will continue to provide for the Marshall Islands’ defence.2

At the 2MSP, the Marshall Islands stated: ‘We remain engaged in seeking to better understand or contribute to work under Article 6’ on victim assistance and environmental remediation, it said. ‘The provisions of this article raise important issues for a nation for whom nuclear justice remains a vital task.’ It emphasised the need to avoid duplication or actions that fail to take into account ‘local complexity’ or that risk unravelling previously adjudicated claims.3

‘We remain a clear voice on the consequences of nuclear weapons detonation – and we hope that in the tragedy of our experience with nuclear weapons testing impacts that there is also important information for wider multilateral efforts under the TPNW and beyond in addressing reporting guidelines,’ it said


  • The Marshall Islands should urgently adhere to the TPNW. Until it is in a position to do so, it should welcome the TPNW as a valuable component in the global disarmament and non-proliferation architecture, work with the Treaty's states parties on practical steps towards disarmament, and attend the meetings of states parties as an observer.

  • The Marshall Islands should request that the United States cease testing of nuclear-capable missiles at Kwajalein Atoll.

  • The Marshall Islands should adhere to the Rarotonga NWFZ Treaty.

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