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The obligation to have a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol with the IAEA

Two states parties — Guinea-Bissau and Palestine — did not already have in force a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (CSA) with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) when they adhered to the TPNW. They had both, however, already concluded and signed such agreements. Guinea- Bissau’s deadline under the TPNW to bring its CSA into force is 15 September 2023, while Palestine’s deadline is 22 July 2022.

NWBM IAEA
IAEA trainer Ms. Perpetua Rodriguez briefs IAEA Safeguards trainees at the Reactor Hall of the Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant in Slovakia. Photo: Dean Calma/IAEA
Safeguards agreements in states parties to the TPNW (as of end 2021)
Safeguards agreements Number States
CSA and an AP in force 39 states Antigua and Barbuda,* Austria, Bangladesh, Benin,* Botswana, Cambodia,* Chile, Comoros,* Costa Rica,* Cuba, Ecuador,* El Salvador,* Fiji,† Gambia,* Holy See,* Honduras,* Ireland, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Lesotho,* Malta, Mexico, Mongolia,† Namibia,† New Zealand,* Nicaragua,* Nigeria, Palau,* Panama,* Paraguay,* Peru, Philippines, Saint Kitts and Nevis,* Seychelles,* South Africa, Thailand, Uruguay, Vanuatu,* Viet Nam.
CSA in force, AP signed 4 states Bolivia†, Kiribati†, Lao PDR†, Malaysia.
CSA in force, no steps towards AP 14 states Belize,* Cook Islands,†§ Dominica,† Guyana,† Maldives,* Nauru,† Niue,†§ Saint Lucia,* Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,† Samoa,† San Marino,* Trinidad and Tobago,† Tuvalu,† Venezuela.
CSA signed, AP signed 1 state Guinea-Bissau
CSA signed, no steps towards AP 1 state Palestine


ARTICLES 3(1), 3(2), 4(1), and 4(3) - INTERPRETATION
What are safeguards agreements?


Safeguards in all non nuclear armed states
Safeguards agreements Number States
CSA and AP in force 132 states Afghanistan,* Albania, Andorra,* Angola,* Antigua and Barbuda,* Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain,* Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin,* Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso,* Burundi,* Cambodia,* Cameroon,* Canada, Central African Republic,* Chad,* Chile, Colombia, Comoros,* Congo,* Costa Rica,* Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Djibouti,* Dominican Republic,* DR Congo, Ecuador,* El Salvador,* Eritrea,* Estonia, Eswatini,* Ethiopia,* Fiji,† Finland, Gabon,* Gambia,* Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala,* Haiti,* Holy See,* Honduras,* Hungary, Iceland,* Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,* Kuwait,* Kyrgyzstan,† Latvia, Lesotho,* Liberia,* Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar,* Malawi,* Mali,* Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,* Mauritius,* Mexico, Moldova,* Monaco,* Mongolia,† Montenegro,* Morocco, Mozambique,* Namibia,† Netherlands,† New Zealand,* Nicaragua,* Niger, Nigeria, North Macedonia,* Norway, Palau,* Panama,* Paraguay,* Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda,* Saint Kitts and Nevis,* Senegal,* Serbia, Seychelles,* Singapore,* Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania,* Thailand, Togo,* Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda,* Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,* Viet Nam, Zimbabwe.*
CSA in force, AP signed 10 states Algeria, Belarus, Bolivia,† Iran,# Kiribati,† Lao PDR,† Malaysia, Myanmar,† Tunisia, Zambia.†
CSA in force, AP concluded 2 states Sierra Leone,† Sri Lanka.
CSA in force, no steps towards AP 35 states Argentina, Bahamas,* Barbados,† Belize,* Bhutan,† Brazil, Brunei,* Cook Islands,†§ Dominica,† Egypt, Grenada,† Guyana,† Lebanon,* Maldives,* Micronesia,* Nauru,† Nepal,† Niue,†§ Oman,† Papua New Guinea,* Qatar,* Saint Lucia,* Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,† Samoa,† San Marino,* Saudi Arabia,† Solomon Islands,† Sudan,* Suriname,† Syria, Tonga,* Trinidad and Tobago,† Tuvalu,† Venezuela, Yemen.†
CSA signed, AP signed 4 states Cabo Verde, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Timor-Leste.
CSA signed, no steps towards AP 1 state Palestine
CSA concluded, AP concluded 1 state Sao Tome and Principe.
CSA concluded, no steps towards AP 1 state Equatorial Guinea.
No steps towards CSA or AP 2 states Somalia, South Sudan