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The prohibition on assistance, encouragement, or inducement

The prohibition on assistance, encouragement, or inducement of prohibited activities is the provision of the TPNW that is contravened by the greatest number of states. Based on available information, the Nuclear Weapons Ban Monitor has concluded that all states parties and signatories were compliant, while 36 states not party engaged in conduct in 2021 that was not compatible with this prohibition. They aid and abet other states’ retention of nuclear weapons in multiple ways, as discussed under headings A) to I) below. Given the secrecy surrounding military activities, the information is likely incomplete.

Polish Air Force F-16 landing at Aviano airbase in Italy on 18 October 2021, where it participated in an exercise simulating the use of nuclear weapons.
Polish Air Force F-16 landing at Aviano airbase in Italy on 18 October 2021, where it participated in an exercise simulating the use of nuclear weapons. Photo: Courtesy of Claudio Tramontin
Compliance and compatibility with the TPNW's prohibition on assistance, encouragement or inducement of prohibited activities
Compliance and compatibility with the TPNW's prohibition on assistance, encouragement or inducement of prohibited activities
ARTICLE 1(1)(e) - INTERPRETATION


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A B-52 Stratofortress taxis on the flight line on 23 April 2021, at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar. The United States deployed the B-52s to Al Udeid to protect US and coalition forces as they conducted drawdown operations from Afghanistan. Photo: Staff Sgt. Kylee Gardner, US Air Force

The Joint Defense Facility Pine Gap in Australia.
The Joint Defense Facility Pine Gap in Australia. Photo: Kristian Laemle Ruff

Japan’s former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and Defence Minister General Nakatani visiting the USS  Ronald Reagan in 2015. If Japan decides to adhere to the TPNW, it will have to provide assurance that its ‘extended deterrence dialogue’ with the United  States would not involve participation in nuclear strike planning.
Japan’s former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and Defence Minister General Nakatani visiting the USS Ronald Reagan in 2015. If Japan decides to adhere to the TPNW, it will have to provide assurance that its ‘extended deterrence dialogue’ with the United States would not involve participation in nuclear strike planning. Photo: Kyodo/Reuters/NTB

An unarmed Minuteman III ICBM launches from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California on 11 August 2021, destined for the Kwajalein Atoll on the Marshall Islands.
An unarmed Minuteman III ICBM launches from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California on 11 August 2021, destined for the Kwajalein Atoll on the Marshall Islands. Photo: Photo: Airman First Class Tiarra Sibley, US Air Force

NATO’s Strategic Concept contains language that supports possession and potential use of nuclear  weapons.
NATO’s Strategic Concept contains language that supports possession and potential use of nuclear weapons. Photo: NATO

Arrangements of extended nuclear deterrence

Arrangement States
Plurilateral France, United Kingdom, United States, and Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey (NATO).
Bilateral Russia and Belarus (CSTO/Union State); Russia and Armenia (CSTO); United States and Australia (Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS))*; United States and Japan (Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan (Anpo)); United States and South Korea (Mutual Defense Treaty).
Alliance membership and the TPNW

A man is seen among the display items on the MBDA missile systems product area at the DSEI (Defence and Security Equipment International) exhibition on 15 September 2021 in London.
A man is seen among the display items on the MBDA missile systems product area at the DSEI (Defence and Security Equipment International) exhibition on 15 September 2021 in London. Photo: Leon Neal/Getty Images
Corporate and state responsibility

Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy and former UK Prime Minister David Cameron deepening nuclear ties at Lancaster House, London, 2 November 2010.
Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy and former UK Prime Minister David Cameron deepening nuclear ties at Lancaster House, London, 2 November 2010. Photo: Heathcliff O'Malley/REX

Gathering at the steps of City Hall in New York, a group advocating for the Comptroller of New York  to divest the city’s pensions and finances from nuclear weapons producers.
Gathering at the steps of City Hall in New York, a group advocating for the Comptroller of New York to divest the city’s pensions and finances from nuclear weapons producers. Photo: Erik McGregor/LightRocket/Getty Images)
The TPNW and financing